Hafiza Hira Iqbal, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Pakistan (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2. Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Vehari, Pakistan
The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.
Batch process was performed to remove the reactive yellow 145 dye by using white quartz. Different operating parameters such as shaking speed, concentration of quartz, adsorbate concentration, pH values, contact time and temperature were evaluated to find maximum level of adsorption. The maximum adsorption efficiency was observed at pH 1. Increase in temperature and contact time showed positive effect on adsorption while optimum adsorption was recorded as 60 °C and 15 minutes, respectively. Moreover, concentration of the adsorbate was directly related to increase in adsorption process and the highest adsorption was achieved at 25 ppm. By contrast, increasing absorbent level showed a gradual decrease in adsorption efficiency. In a nutshell, results obtained from this study elucidate that white quartz can be considered as an efficient absorbent for the removal of reactive dye yellow 145.
How to cite: Kazi, SA., Iqbal, HH., Shahid, N., Shah, GM., 2016. Removal of reactive dye yellow 145 by adsorption using white quartz. Bulletin of Environmental Studies 1(2): 39-42.
Copyright © 2016 Kazi, Iqbal, Shahid, Shah. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Edited by: Muhammad Arslan (UFZ, Germany)
Reviewed by: Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid (KAU, Saudi Arabia) & Ahmed Ali (Anhui Agricultural university, China)
Published Online: 24/04/2016
The lesser availability of fresh water necessitate the recycling of contaminated water using cheap and environmental friendly technologies (Barlow, 1999). Systematic reviews illustrated that after every twenty years, consumption of water is doubling and hence available water resources must be reclaimed before their application in different sectors such as, agriculture, industry, municipal, etc. (Mohammadi et al., 2004). The contamination of water bodies with dyes is a recent challenge as it impart color; causing low esthetics and fouling of freshwater resources (Namasivayam and Kavitha, 2002). The majority of dyes consist of complex organic molecules as they are used to impart color on fabric surfaces (Yagub et al., 2014). The application of dyes can be seen in many industries including plastic, rubber, cosmetics food processing, printing (Dawood et al., 2014; Wróbel et al., 2001), paper, leather tanning (Kabdaşli et al., 1999) and textile (Sokolowska-Gajda et al., 1996).
It is estimated that more than 100,000 types of dyes are produced annually with total amount exceeding 7 × 105 tons (McMullan et al., 2001). During the dyeing process, approximately 1–20% of dyes are lost and hence are released into the adjacent environment as textile effluent (Weber and Stickney, 1993). Besides, different toxic metabolites (derivatives of dyes) are also produce as a result of weathering either by hydrolysis, oxidation and/or other (bio) chemical reactions (Pagga and Brown, 1986; Saquib and Muneer, 2003). The recalcitrant nature of compounds makes them highly undesirable in water bodies even at very low concentration (Park et al., 2007). In this regard, a number of techniques have been employed including flocculation and coagulation (Panswad and Wongchaisuwan, 1986), ozonation or oxidation (Malik and Saha, 2003), photocatalytic degradation (Sleiman et al., 2007), micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (Zaghbani et al., 2008), membrane separation (Ciardelli et al., 2001), electrochemical degradation (Fan et al., 2008), sonochemical degradation (Abbasi and Asl, 2008), Fenton-biological treatment scheme (Lodha and Chaudhari, 2007), solar photo-Fenton and biological processes (García-Montaño et al., 2008) and adsorption (Anbia and Moradi, 2009a,b).
Among these techniques, adsorption has gained tremendous popularity over conventional techniques due to less capital investment, ease of operation, flexibility of design, and insensitivity to toxic pollutants (Ali and Gupta, 2006). Earlier studies have reported the variety of adsorbents such ion-exchange resins, clay, activated carbon and zeolites (Forgacs et al., 2004; Messina and Schulz, 2006). The adsorption using activated carbon is known as an effective approach however but the natural minerals are cheap and easily available, e.g., quartz; however, very few studies have been conducted to test its efficiency.
The present study employs quartz as an adsorbent for the removal of dye RY145. Quartz is natural mineral and has exemplary properties of reservoir rock. The mineral possess porous texture, mechanical stability and high surface area and therefore can be considered as attractive adsorbent for removal of dyes. In previous studies, different type of siliceous material are used including zeolites, glass and perlite for the removal of dyes. Due to their low cost, ease of availability and abundance, the use of these adsorbents is increasing every day (Rafatullah et al., 2010). In Pakistan, a number of industries are operating which employs highly reactive dyes for the subsequent staining procedures. Due to inefficiencies of dying process, 10-15% of dye is released in effluents (Asgher et al., 2006). The dye reactive yellow 145 is one of them which is ever exploited in tremendous amount for the dyeing of cotton. This dye represents azo group as it comprises both monochlorotriazine (MCT) and sulphatoethylsulphone (SES) groups which are resistant to conventional biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this study to find optimum pH, concentration of dye, time, shaking speed, temperature and amount of adsorbent towards better removal of RY145 while using quartz.
Materials and Methods
Adsorbate and Reagents
The reactive yellow 145 (C18H14Cl2N8Na2O9S2) was used as adsorbate material; which is also called as reactive yellow 3RS, and have the wavelength of 419 with the molecular weight of 1026.20 (Aguedach et al., 2005). Standard solutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40) were prepared from the stock solution (100 ppm) by simple dilution method using distilled water. The hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions were used for the adjustment of pH. The dye and reagents were obtained from A.M Scientific System Ltd., Lahore. White quartz was used as adsorbent and was collected from a natural origin in Sawat. After removing dirt, the material was crushed and passed through a sieve of 100 mesh size as described earlier (Arias et al., 2006).
In batch method, particle size of used adsorbent was 0.149 mm. To get the optimum dye removal, effect of different factors such as shaking speed, amount of adsorbent, contact time, temperature, pH and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption was studied. A wide range of rotations per minutes (i.e., 0 to 250 rpm) used for the determination of optimal shaking speed; whereas, 1 to 3 grams of white quartz was used to assess the effect of adsorbent dosage on adsorption process. Likewise, different ranges of other factors i.e. contact time (0-60 min), temperature (18-80 °C), adsorbent dosage (5-40ppm) and pH (1-13) were used to check their effect on removal efficiency. To maintain the pH level, 0.1 molar hydrochloric moval efficiency. To maintain the pH level, 0.1 molar hydrochloric acid (HCL) and sodium hydro oxide (NaOH) were used.
All of the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (v 22.0). The descriptive analyses, i.e. mean, standard deviation (SD), median and ranges were analyzed to summarize the dataset. Independent samples t-test was used for the comparisons between treatments.
Results and Discussion
Effect of different parameters on adsorption
Effect of Shaking Speed: The effect of variation in stirring speed on adsorption process was studied over the range of 0 to 250 rpm. Other experimental conditions such as concentration of yellow dye 145, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and pH were kept constant. The highest adsorption 86.6% was obtained at 50 rpm whereas the lowest was 51.6 at 250 rpm (Table 1). It was observed that adsorption yield increases with increase in stirring speed up to the optimal level; however, further rise in speed declined the adsorption efficiency.
Effect of adsorbent dose: The effect of variation in the adsorbent dose on the adsorption of yellow 145 was studied by using optimum shaking speed 50 rpm while reaming experimental conditions remained constant. Adsorbent dose used in the range of 1 to 4 g per 50 mL. It was observed that the adsorption efficiency decreases with increasing adsorbent dose (Table 2). The minimum adsorption was 57.5% at 4 g whereas the maximum adsorption (81.6 %) was recorded at 1 g. Results elucidates the adsorption is indirectly related to adsorbent dosage. For further experimental setup, 1 g per 50 ml of yellow dye 145 with 50 rpm was used. The negative relation between adsorption efficiency and adsorbent dose might be attributed to particle interactive behavior such as aggregation, that would lead to decrease in total surface area of adsorbent and hence the adsorption is decreased. In addition, it might be due to splitting effect of flux between adsorbent and adsorbate which cause decrease in amount of adsorption of dye on unit weight of quartz (adsorbent) (Vadivelan and Kumar, 2005). Same results have been described in previous studies (Bulut and Aydın, 2006; Chiou et al., 2004; Çiçek et al., 2007). By contrast, Gül and Özcan-Yıldırım (2009) reported a positive relation between adsorption efficiency and adsorbent.
Effect of time: Contact time is an important factor that influence the adsorption process wastewater treatment (Mall et al., 2006). To evaluate the effect of contact time on adsorption efficiency, adsorption press was carried out for different time intervals ranging from 0 to 60 minutes while keeping the experimental conditions same for all treatments as described earlier. A rapid increase in adsorption efficiency was observed with increasing contact time but after attaining the optimal time, adsorption efficiency started decreasing with further increase in contact time. The lowest adsorption rate (78.3 %) was recorded at 0 minutes whereas the highest (90%) was at 15 minutes (Table 3). For further investigations 15 minutes contact time was used. In start the increase in contact time between adsorbent and solution containing adsorbate increases the adsorption efficiency. It is suggested that the longer time period is required for bond of adsorbate with adsorbent to achieve optimum level (Mall et al., 2006). As the equilibrium state attained, the adsorption cannot be enhanced by increasing the contact time. It could be explained by the fact that in start more surface area is available and adsorbate ions attached to active sites and reached the saturation level (Çiçek et al., 2007). After saturation, deposition starts and this results decrease in adsorption.
Effect of Temperature: The efficiency of adsorption was studied at various temperatures ranging from 18 to 80°C while remaining experimental set conditions kept constant for all the treatments on each temperature. The highest adsorption (98.3%) was recorded at 60 °C whereas the lowest at room temperature (i.e., 18°C) (Table 4). It is suggested that the increase in temperature may enhance the diffusivity of dye ions that could be resulted in rise of adsorption rate (Benguella and Benaissa, 2002). Diffusion is considered as endothermic reaction (Juang et al., 1997) and suggested as a potential factor to increase adsorption efficiency. Çiçek et al. (2007) also reported an increase in adsorption efficiency with increasing temperature that confirms the results of current study.
Effect of pH: The effect of pH on yellow 145 was studied by varying the pH from 1 to 13 with interval of odd numbers. The level of pH was maintained by using 0.1 molar HCl and NaOH solutions. Moreover, other experimental conditions for treatments at all pH levels were kept same as described earlier. Results showed that the quartz is a good adsorbent for yellow 145 in acidic conditions as reported in previous study (Aguedach et al., 2005). Initially, the adsorption efficiency decreases with gradual increase in pH level up to pH 5 (Table 5). Again, from neutral pH 7, the adsorption efficiency starts increasing along with increase in pH . By contrast, Gül and Özcan-Yıldırım (2009) reported highest adsorption efficiency at neutral pH. The optimal pH level for adsorption efficiency depends on the type of dye and adsorbent. The change in pH level affects the adsorption process by dissociation of functional groups from adsorbents surface. Effect of pH on adsorption process also related to chemistry of solution and functional groups present on adsorbent.
Effect of Adsorbate Concentration: Initial concentration of adsorbate provides driving force which is useful to overcome the resistance in transferring the molecules present between aqueous and solid phase (Akkaya and Özer, 2005). Therefore, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbate on the adsorption process was investigated by using different concentration ranging from 5 to 40 ppm with interval of 5 ppm while keeping the other experimental conditions constant for all adsorbate concentrations. Initially the adsorption efficiency was increased with increasing concentration of dye but after gaining optimum level it was gradually decreased. Highest adsorption (26.8%) was recorded at 25 ppm whereas the lowest (18%) at 5ppm of adsorbate concentration (Table 6). In previous studies it has been explained that the adsorption rate increases with increasing initial concentration of adsorbate due to more availability of binding sites. When all binding sites of adsorbent are occupied, adsorbate ions have less chance to attach on adsorbent (Sekhar et al., 2003).
The present study shows that the the white quartz, which is naturally occurring and cheap geological material, was found to be a very good adsorbent for the adsorption of Yellow 145. The amount of adsorption was increased with increasing shaking speed, contact time and temperature. After achieving optimum level there was no further increase in rate of adsorption. Likewise, 60 °C of temperature was found to give best adsorption, whereas; the best shaking speed, adsorbent dosage and contact time were 50 rpm, 1 gram and 15 minutes, respectively. The adsorption capacity of dyes was found to be highest at pH level 1; however; the adsorbate concentration was 25 ppm that showed the highest removal efficiency.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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